Thursday, August 27, 2020

The Role of Culture in Conflict Resolution

The Role of Culture in Conflict Resolution Instance OF DAGBON IN GHANA The between relativity and network of human undertaking has made clash something unavoidable as it has come to in the end be a piece of the typical daily schedule of human social association. Ethnic clashes and common wars keep on plagueing numerous African nations particularly over the most recent two decades. There are developing worries about the effects of these contentions on sub-territorial and provincial steadiness just as security, with unfavorable ramifications on financial development, condition and advancement. The effects of these contentions have been severest on the powerless gatherings, for example, the matured, ladies and youngsters turning around numerous improvement endeavors in struggle zones (John Kusimi; Julius Fobil; Raymond Atuguba; Isabella Erawoc; Franklin Oduro Abstract: Conflicts in Northern Ghana a Mirror of Answers to Sub-Regional Stability and Security Questions). Struggle has both an informal importance and a discouragingly not insignificant rundown of explicit definitions. The rundown incorporates four rather various utilizations if the term: (1) precursor conditions to some unmistakable battle (2) full of feeling states (pressure or antagonistic vibe) (3) psychological states (for instance the discernment that some other individual or element acts against ones intrigue and (4) conflictful conduct, verbal or non verbal running from inactive protection from dynamic animosity. As indicated by Wiktionary, strife is a contradiction of two things that can't be at the same time satisfied. In basic terms strife signifies a circumstance when at least two associations or people are in an inconsistency between them.. Strife is more broad than ordinarily saw. The contention is a logical inconsistency, a war, perhaps an opposition exist however the genuine clash condition is progressively most prominent approach to communicate brutality, and where this occur and savagery produce results, it create an ever increasing number of contentions. Culture (from the Latin cultura coming from colere, which means â€Å"to cultivate†) is a term that has various implications. For instance, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn incorporated a rundown of 164 meanings of â€Å"culture† in Culture: a Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. In any case, the word â€Å"culture† is most normally utilized in three fundamental detects: Greatness of taste in the expressive arts and humanities, otherwise called high culture A coordinated example of human information, conviction, and conduct that relies on the limit with respect to representative idea and social learning The arrangement of shared perspectives, qualities, objectives, and practices that describes a foundation, association or gathering (Harper, Douglas (2001). Online Etymology Dictionary and Kroeber, A. L. also, C. Kluckhohn, (1952). Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions) At the point when the idea previously rose in eighteenth-and nineteenth-century Europe, it suggested a procedure of development or improvement, as in farming or cultivation. In the nineteenth century, it came to allude first to the advancement or refinement of the individual, particularly through training, and afterward to the satisfaction of national goals or standards. In the mid-nineteenth century, a few researchers utilized the term â€Å"culture† to allude to a widespread human limit (C. Kluckhohn, (1952). Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions) Albeit to a great extent disregarded just like a key component in the age of contentions, culture is a fundamental piece of contention and compromise (LeBaron, Michelle Conflict and Culture: Research in Five Communities in British Columbia, Canada). Culture, for the most part acting inside the boundaries of a toothless bulldog, it penetrate all circles of the ordinary day by day events and it does as such at all normal ways. It fills in as examining road which sends us messages that shape our observations, attributions, decisions, and thoughts of self and other. Societies are ground-breaking, they are frequently oblivious, affecting clash and endeavors to determine strife in vague manners. For the single individual, societies are a moving, powerful arrangement of beginning stages that situate us specifically way and away from different headings. Every one of us has a place with various societies that give us messages about what is typical, fitting, and anticipated. At the point when others don't live up to our desires, it is frequently a prompt that our social desires are extraordinary and thought or anticipated as un-regarded. We may confuse contrasts among others and us with proof of dishonesty or absence of sound judgment with respect to other people, not understanding that good judgment isn't social. What is normal to one gathering may appear to be abnormal, nonsensical, or wrong to another. In the partitioning circles of two gatherings, culture extends an enormous feeling of uniqueness; something most people would want to bite the dust for than to observe it debased by the restricting gathering. Regardless of whether a contention exists at all is a social inquiry, and by method of shared outline and interconnection among culture and struggle; societies are installed in pretty much every contention since clashes emerge in human connections. Societies influence the manners in which we name, edge, fault, and endeavor to tame clashes. In actuality, when any of the above is redirected by one social gathering vis-à -vis different, clashes are the rising results. The vast majority particularly in Africa and different pieces of the globe invest heavily in participating in exercises with a social sense than propelling the course of the general great. Clashes among adolescents and guardians are molded by generational culture, and clashes between companions or accomplices are affected by sex culture. In associations, clashes emerging from various disciplinary societies raise pressures between colleagues, making stressed or erroneous correspondence and focused on connections. Culture p enetrates strife regardless, some of the time pushing forward with force, different occasions unobtrusively winding along, barely declaring its essence until shocked individuals about discover it. Hence, this article looks to accommodate the job of culture in the Dagbon struggle in Northern Ghana and how these equivalent two associations of contentions are again interwoven for the motivations behind clash and compromise. The test is that, given societies significant job in clashes, it is given little idea and thought as it for the most part named in the oblivious hover of human conduct vis-à -vis clashes and a few methodologies social goals to the administration and goals of the contention aggravate this issue since they limit social job and impacts in the strained circumstance. We will consider the Dagbon strife in and attempt to fit it inside this edge of disregard. This is on the grounds that the Dagbon strife albeit to a great extent considered ethnic has an immense social measurement which goes to a great extent unattended to. Culture is consistently a factor in struggle, regardless of whether it assumes a focal job or impacts it quietly and delicately. Geologically and truly, Ghana lies between scopes 50 and 110N and longitudes 10 and 30E with a landmass of 23.9million hectares. Ghanas evaluated absolute populace is 19.5 million (GSS, 2002:1), involving an immense mosaic of a few ethnic gatherings communicating in more than hundred neighborhood dialects. Northern Ghana on which this paper centers is co-end with an immense grounds of land that traverses the White Volta, Black Volta and Oti River Basins. The territory is separated into three political/regulatory locales containing the Upper West (18,476km2) and the Upper East(8,842km2) districts flanking Burkina Faso in the outrageous northern constraints of Ghana and the Northern Region (70,384km2) toward the south of Upper East and Upper West. Populaces in these zones observer profound destitution levels and low education rates, with low school enrolment rate and deficient social insurance administrations. More than 90 percent of the populace here is occupied with resource agribusi ness and creature raising (GSS, (2002). Populace and Housing Census 2000: Summary of Final Results). In this manner, land proprietorship decides to an enormous degree, the idea of social and force relations among the ethnic gatherings occupying these three districts and has likewise been a significant wellspring of contentions among them. The three areas harbor unfathomable heterogeneous gatherings of individuals talking more than 30 nearby tongues. The concealed truth is that, a large portion of these heterogeneous gatherings have authentic associations going back to the sixteenth century. The sociocultural association of the majority of these people groups of the northern belt is patrilineal with a solid custom of brought together organization under the lordship of an incredible ruler, for example, the Mossi-Dagbani Kingdoms. In ongoing national political conversations, the Mossi-Dagbani bunches are alluded to as the ‘major clans in Northern Ghana. In any case, there are add itionally stateless or acephalous gatherings, for example, the Konkomba and the Tallensi. Along these lines strategically and officially, there are a great deal of chronicled and present day shared traits. This is the thing that causes and infact has the worst thing about stun with regards to the issue of contentions and the best apparatuses in managing or dealing with them. The past 25years have seen various dangerous ethnic clashes in Northern Ghana. The extremely hazardous ones are those of 1980 (Konkombas against Nanumbas) and the Guinea Fowl War of 1994 (between the Konkombas on one hand and Nanumbas, Dagombas and Gonjas then again) (Brukum J. N. K, The Pito, Mango and Guinea Fowl Wars: Episodes in the History of Northern Ghana, 1980-1999). In 1980/86 and 2000, Mamprusis and Kusasis did battle in Bawku. Dagombas additionally battled among themselves; these and more are the latest (and of which this exposition basic look) of these intra-Dagbon conflicts were those between the Andani and the Abudu Gates in Yendi, in 2002 (Brukum J. N. K, The Pito, Mango and Guinea Fowl Wars: Episodes in the History of Northern Ghana, 1980-1999). There has been a lot of comparative public viciousness amon

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Writing Essays - Essay Topics That Students Should Find Interesting

Writing Essays - Essay Topics That Students Should Find InterestingThe first part of the essay is always a bit scary to a lot of college students. When it comes to college-essay topics, they usually can't come up with anything that they really believe in and the writing ends up being shoddily written.While college essay topics are important, they aren't quite as important as the writer who isn't very good at writing. Often, one who has to work in an environment that may not be at par with college environments and subjects might not be as comfortable with them.When it comes to expository essay topics, it's important that you find a subject that you're really passionate about. This is often a little difficult if you don't have a passion for it. However, having a topic that you're truly interested in will help it to come off as much better than an essay that isn't at all that your own, but rather one that's taken from something that you love.College essay topics should be chosen based o n the topic that you write about. If you write about a subject that you are really passionate about, it will come off as much better than one that's based around something that you're not so interested in.One of the biggest problems that a lot of college students have is actually with the topic. There's nothing wrong with trying to write a piece that comes across as well as possible. In order to do this, you should find something that you're passionate about and be passionate about it.This might be a particular subject or something like a sports team that you like. It doesn't matter what it is, just be as passionate about it as you possibly can.Another thing that you can do is to get the help of an expository essay topics that you find. There are many great sites that offer advice on what to write about.College essay topics are important, but it's not as important as finding a topic that you're really passionate about. This will help it to come off as well as possible and make sure that you provide your best work.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Electronic money challenges and solutions Essay

Electronic cash difficulties and arrangements - Essay Example As Bill Gate, the organizer of Microsoft puts it: E-installment or electronic installment is a method of making exchanges over the web or some other electronic framework. The exchange happens as secure information move from one end to the next. The best preferred position of an e-installment based exchange is the speed with which the exchange gets finished. Different advantages incorporate the straightforwardness with which the exchange can be finished; the clients don't need to be truly present to make these exchanges and actually, the two purchasers and venders can meet in the electronic market to make electronic exchanges utilizing electronic cash. There are different types of e-installment frameworks that are being used these days. These incorporate charge cards, platinum cards, online exchanges, wire moves, e-cash like Pay Pal, and different modes through which individuals make installments over the web. The majority of these frameworks depend on an ID and secret phrase framework to secure against unapproved use. With an expansion in the size of online applications and frameworks, there is a developing risk of security issues, vulnerabilities and presentation on the utilization of electronic transmission, and web based frameworks. This has been a worry for organizations, people, government and law requirement offices. Doing exchanges online methods making installments for the merchandise and enterprises that are bought; this prompts a requirement for building up a component to make these 'e-installments'. This further converts into creating and actualizing a security procedure to guarantee that these exchanges are done keeping the privacy, honesty and accessibility of the frameworks flawless. An e-exchange is as powerless to misrepresentation as some other exchange, if not more. The fraudsters are numerous in the electronic world, are scattered all round the globe, have update information and mastery about the frameworks and PCs, and are assaulting to access, and as a rule, to utilize the per sonality, assets and correspondence of an individual in unlawful, exploitative and undesired way. 2.1 Security Issues for E-Money and E-Payment Systems Security of electronic cash alludes to setting up the classification, respectability and accessibility of data when it is gone through the electronic framework. Some security necessities for an electronic cash move framework are laid out beneath (British Standards, 2006, p.3): Classification - guaranteeing that data is available just to those approved to approach it. Honesty - defending the precision and fulfillment of data and handling strategies Accessibility - guaranteeing that approved clients approach data and partners resources when required Realness - data ought to be accessible to sender and beneficiary, who must demonstrate their characters to one another Non-denial - confirmation/evidence that the transmitted message was without a doubt gotten (ECD, 2007). 3. Key Challenges and Recommendations for Electronic Payment Systems A portrayal of explicit dangers and difficulties of online exchanges is given beneath. 3.1 Privacy and

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Holy Of Marriage The Sacrament Of Matrimony

The purpose of this paper is to provide information through research of the sacrament that in my opinion is most meaningful, the sacrament of Matrimony. The paper will include the history of matrimony, why marriage is considered a sacrament, suggestions for future development as well as why this sacrament was chosen. Before we can begin to understand matrimony as a sacrament we must first understand its history and what the sacrament of marriage is meant to represent. Matrimony was not always considered a sacrament; in fact there was a time when marriage was considered a contract rather than a covenant in many cultures. Historically, in some contexts marriage was thought of as merely a social arrangement for continuing the family name, preserving family property and cementing diplomatic arrangements. Matrimony did not incorporate the friendship dimension of marriage. (Cooke Macy, 2005) Men and women were simply married for economic reasons where love was not important. â€Å"Jesus lived and preached in a world that saw marriage primarily as an economic contract. Jews considered marriage a commandment, but one intended to benefit the wider community by ensuring stability and economic prosperity.† (Manning, 2012) In the twelfth century however, marriage began to become recognized as a commitment between two people. (Cooke Macy, 2005, p. 66) Marriage today is the true commitment, a partnership between two people who love and respect each ot her. The partners grow in their faithShow MoreRelatedEssay on Christian Marriage1487 Words   |  6 PagesChristian Marriage Introduction and background. Christian Marriage, also called Matrimony is a sacrament in which a man and a woman publicly declare their love and fidelity in front of witnesses, a priest or minister and God. The It is seen by all Christian churches as both a physical and spiritual fulfillment. Christianity emphasises that the sacrament of Holy Matrimony is a lifetime commitment. So they are no longer two, but one. Therefore, what God has joined together, let no one separateRead MoreGay Marriage Should be Legal Essay1176 Words   |  5 Pagesthe definition of marriage. There is considerable evidence form history, the origins of the word, and even its current legal use. Yet, somehow there is still tension and confusion surrounding the issue of same-sex marriage. As the debate intensifies, emotional ones quickly replace rational thoughts. Lately, homosexuals carry out most of the fight for the right to be married. Of course, there are several other situations, in which people attempt to challenge traditional matri mony. There was the manRead MoreThe Eucharist Sacrament, Signs Symbols1632 Words   |  7 PagesThe Eucharist Sacrament, Signs Symbols The seven sacraments are ceremonies that point to what is sacred, significant and important for Christians. They are special occasions for experiencing God’s saving presence. The seven formal sacraments are identified as; baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, reconciliation, anointing, holy orders and marriage. Sacraments entail symbols and signs. Symbols are objects or patterns that are used to represent an invisible reality. Each symbol and sign work togetherRead MoreEssay on Confirmation in the Catholic Church1646 Words   |  7 PagesConfirmation in the Catholic Church Confirmation is a Catholic sacrament of mature Christian commitment and a deepening of baptismal gifts. Like Baptism and Eucharist, it is a Sacrament of Initiation for Catholics and a Sacrament of faith in Gods fidelity to us Confirmation is the moment when two things are confirmed. The candidate confirms his/her faith in Christ and takes full responsibility for thatRead MoreThe Catholic Church874 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"What therefore God has joined together, let no man put asunder† (Catechism of The Catholic Church, 450), this was God’s plan for the matrimony of a woman and a man. God meant for a man and a woman to be joined as one in Holy matrimony as husband and wife in a union that was not to be dissolved. Therefore, as specifically spelled out in the sixth commandment, adultery is a mortal sin and contrary to the plan God had for mankind. Apostle Paul goes to great lengths to clarify the love a man shouldRead MoreEssay on A Christians View of Marriage1318 Words   |  6 PagesChristians View of Marriage Some Christians believe that marriage should be the ultimate relationship. When two people get married they make a vow to stay in a life long committed relationship. . It is a Christian promise made before God and is significant and of great importance amongst all Christian denominations despite certain differences in opinions. However, sometimes a variety of different circumstances can affect the longevity of a marriage. For example adulteryRead MoreThe Word Of God Is An Essential Component Of The Foundation Of One s Faith1625 Words   |  7 Pageswe must understand what the Word of God is and how it functions as a sacrament. In essence, the Word of God is the manifestation of Jesus Christ himself but more importantly, the Word of God is the word of God s grace. Now, one can begin to understand how the Word of God functions as a sacrament. Ultimately, the sacrament functions as an instrument to disclose God s desire. The Word of God, therefore, functions as a sacrament as it discloses the infinite potential of God whose ultimate purposeRead MoreThe Effects Of Mexican Immigrant Families On The Mexican Culture775 Words   |  4 PagesPeople demonstrate their culture through symbols, attitudes, behaviors, ideas, and values (Brown, Rogers Kapadia, 2008). Cultural factors are believed to be the largest contributor to long-term marriages in the Mexican culture such, as Famili smo, Marianismo, Machismo, and Religion (Castillo Caver, 2009). A generally belief is that the highest levels of family cohesion and Familismo are presented in the most recently immigrated groups and that these levels neutralize as the families become moreRead MoreThe Sacrament of Baptism1977 Words   |  8 PagesSacrament is defined as: â€Å"a Christian rite that is believed to have been ordained by Christ and that is held to be a means of divine grace or to be a sign or symbol of a spiritual reality† (Merriam-Webster). Baptism is one of the Sacraments of Christianity that is recognized. It affirms that guilt will be removed as well as the effects of Original Sin. Those baptized will be united with the Church, which symbolizes the body of Christ here on earth. In Hebrew or Greek forms, baptism means to immerseRead MoreChristianity And Its Impact On Society2278 Words   |  10 Pageswith three thousand of his soldiers in 481.( Ries,pg.12) In Ireland A.D. 500, the Chu rch flourished due to new popularity(Ries Charlemange was crowned the first Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo the third.(Ries,pg.14) Pope Gregory told the monks of England to burn all Idols.( Ries,pg.12)Many Kings who were german became Holy Roman Emperor ( Ries, pg.14) The Great Schism was when the church of christianity officially split, though the Eastern branches of the Church had long been divided on religious

Friday, May 15, 2020

Homelessness And Its Effects On Society - 2302 Words

â€Å"It’s time to declare a war on homelessness, which is evolving into a crisis,† proclaimed Mayor Kirk Caldwell in The Honolulu Star Advertiser. (Katel, 841-864) Homelessness has become a widely known issue in the United States. Many people today are living in the streets without a source of food, water, or a place to sleep at night. Some who are among the homeless include the elderly, children, and those who are mentally ill. This is a cause for concern for citizens who are living their daily lives. Some people express their fear of homeless persons, believing that they are just beggars for money and take up space on the streets. Although the description homeless people is not always true, homelessness does affect society and puts the future generation at risk of becoming homeless as well. People need to bring attention to the homeless problem across the United States so action can be taken and change will take place. Homelessness can be divided into two groups: people who are homeless, and those who are chronically homeless. According to The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), homelessness includes those who are â€Å"living in dwellings unfit for human habitation, in emergency shelters or temporary housing, and/or leaving such a place.† (Katel, 841-864) On the other hand, those who are considered â€Å"chronically homeless† are usually homeless for one or more years and have a disability or some kind of addiction. Today, homelessness is not a new issue America isShow MoreRelatedThe Effects of Homelessness on Society Essay588 Words   |  3 PagesHomelessness Ever noticed the people outside, asking you for money on the train or in the streets? Most have a funny smell, or are barely dressed when it is freezing outside? Those people are more than likely homeless. Being homeless is the state of a person living on the streets, if they have no home. Homelessness occurs because many people cannot afford housing, do not have a job, receive low income, are mentally ill or have a drug addiction (Coalition for the Homeless). Homelessness affects societyRead MoreThe Emotional, Social, And Academic Effects Of Homelessness On Children1291 Words   |  6 Pages01/22/2015 The emotional, social, and academic effects of homelessness on children Hardly a day in life goes by without seeing a homeless child trying to survive, especially in developing countries. Unwanted sightings of homeless children happen every day both in developed and underdeveloped countries. The increase in divorce and trend in cohabitation has led to an increasing number of children being homeless. As stated in the â€Å" Homeless Facts Children and Homelessness - Some Facts conducted by the CommitteeRead MoreHomeless in The United States 1309 Words   |  6 PagesHomelessness is a problem that happens in many different countries around the world. Definitions of homelessness are defined in different meanings by different people. However, the Stewart B. McKinney Act defines a homeless person as â€Å" one who lacks a fixed permanent nighttime residence or whose nighttime residence is a temporary shelter, welfare hotel, or any public or private place not designed as sleeping accommodations for human beings† (McNamara 1025). It is impossible to fi nd out exactly theRead MoreHomelessness and Mental Illness1095 Words   |  5 PagesImagine a man on the streets, who society has forgotten. This man emits the smell of garbage; he has not bathed in months. This man sits quietly mumbling to himself. To the outer world he is just one of the many homeless, but little does society know that this man has a mental illness as well. Homelessness and mental illness are linked. These two happenings have similar beginnings. Homelessness is influenced by drug and alcohol disuse, being homeless at a young age, money problems, and trauma symptomsRead MoreHomelessness in Canada Essay882 Words   |  4 PagesHomelessness is a condition of people who lack regular access to adequate housing. As this condition becomes a growing problem in Canada people are forced to deal with the issues. Who are the homeless? They range from children to adults and even in some cases, families. Why are they homeless? Poverty, lack of jobs or well paying jobs, declin e in Social Services, domestic violence, mental illness, and chemical dependency contribute to the majority of the homeless within our society. What effects doesRead MoreThe Outcasts Of Society, The Lazy And Incompetent, Or The Victims Of Extreme Misfortunes?1607 Words   |  7 PagesThe outcasts of society, the lazy and incompetent, or the victims of extreme misfortunes? As we put aside our bifocals or ethnocentrism and tour the culture of homelessness, we will demystify, learning the how’s, when’s and why’s. It is essential not to get lost within the presentation of stats and facts. But, to digest the information, reverting it back to our own lives. In doing so, we will see how near or far we are to the brinks of homelessness. Careful! As the degrees of separation maybe notRead MoreThe Problem Of Human Rights Law1361 Words   |  6 Pagesassistance in dealing with homelessness. However, it will discuss its deficiencies in dealing with homelessness. It will f ocus on how the human Rights law influences decision making policies in protecting and preventing new range of homelessness, this will be discussed from the United Nations perspectives. It will also emphasize on the provisions and the influence of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) on the domestic law in relation to the issue of homelessness, likewise the emergence ofRead MoreNegative Effects Of Homelessness1446 Words   |  6 Pagesthemselves the question, â€Å"Does homelessness affect me at all?† Typically, if homelessness isn’t affecting a certain individual or anyone that they’re close to, they tend to not want to help. From previous research done by Pergantis, Tolliver, Bishop, 2016, it is a known fact that about 578,242 people in America are considered to be homeless. People who were homeless back then done by were considered as disconnected from the world and they have also encountered psychological effects. Other writers likeRead MoreThe Effects of Homelessness on Children1654 Words   |  7 Pagesmental abuse and drug use. Homelessness gained public attention in the late 1970s because homelessness became more visible when it began to include women and children. Today homelessness can be linked to various other problems. It is estimated that 200,000 thousand Canadians have lived in or used the services of a homeless shelter. On any given night, as many as 30,000 thousand Canadians experience homelessness and as many as 50,000 thousand Canadians may be â€Å"hidden homelessness† victims. In other wordsRead MoreHomelessness in Sacramento1439 Words   |  6 Pageseach social class in society, those who fall in the underclass are referred to as the poor. They typically live in areas with high rates of poverty and few opportunities to improve their lives. But what about those who have less than the lower class. There is a rising population of people who have lost everything and therefore must take shelter in the local parks, abandoned buildings, overpasses, and any other form of protection against the elements (Schutt, 2011). Homelessness is a social problem

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Short Story - 1114 Words

Gray- The train left with my dear Gabriela on, a beautiful smile on her face. I watched as long as I could see the train in the distance. Once I could no longer see it I petted Zippys neck. Let us be on our way boy, it is time to go home, I said as I pulled on his reins. Back at the station I lead the trio back to the stables of the castle. We tied our horses to the stables; I gave Zippy the apples and carrots Gabriela would have wanted me to give him. The three came up to me, they put their fists to their chest, Thank you for this opportunity! They yelled in unison at me. No, thank you for helping me with this task, I said as I noticed depression seeping into my tone, You all did a good job. Dismissed! Chris was the†¦show more content†¦William I swear! I yelled after him to tired to run. I eventually made my way back to Zippy and finished brushing his mane. I made sure he had lots of water before making my way back to my room. I undressed and quickly put on dry clothes to shield myself from the cold. I fell asleep not much later. Many days passed and I never saw Gabriela again, it was like she completely disappeared. I have asked merchants and visitors from Skyrock if they have ever seen a servant girl exit the castle, all they have seen are older ladies. Maybe she is not allowed outside castle grounds. I wonder if she still remembers me, I cannot seem to forget her no matter how hard I try. Her warm smile, her caring unique blue eyes, her delicate hand that looked nothing like a servants hand which was surprising, her wavy brown hair that decorated her face; she really was beautiful. She looked more like a princess than a servant if you ask me. But you know, we do not all get to choose our lives. There was not one night that she did not appear in my long beautiful dreams of her. There was not a day I did not think about her either. Her gorgeous laugh that drove me crazy. The way her cheeks blushed slightly, or the way she scrunches her nose. Her form of pouting when she was confused, or her way of being so direct as she winked or smirked. It was so adorable. Gratholomeal, I heard someone call making me jump from my postShow MoreRelatedshort story1018 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Short Stories:  Ã‚  Characteristics †¢Short  - Can usually be read in one sitting. †¢Concise:  Ã‚  Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told.  Ã‚  This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot †¢Usually tries to leave behind a  single impression  or effect.  Ã‚  Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. †¢Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringing  personal experiences  and  prior knowledge  to the story. Four MajorRead MoreThe Short Stories Ideas For Writing A Short Story Essay1097 Words   |  5 Pageswriting a short story. Many a time, writers run out of these short story ideas upon exhausting their sources of short story ideas. If you are one of these writers, who have run out of short story ideas, and the deadline you have for coming up with a short story is running out, the short story writing prompts below will surely help you. Additionally, if you are being tormented by the blank Microsoft Word document staring at you because you are not able to come up with the best short story idea, youRead MoreShort Story1804 Words   |  8 PagesShort story: Definition and History. A  short story  like any other term does not have only one definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in a general idea. According to The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), â€Å"the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and less complicated than those of a novel.† In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s DictionaryRead MoreShort Stories648 Words   |  3 Pageswhat the title to the short story is. The short story theme I am going conduct on is â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty’ by James Thurber (1973). In this short story the literary elements being used is plot and symbols and the theme being full of distractions and disruption. The narrator is giving a third person point of view in sharing the thoughts of the characters. Walter Mitty the daydreamer is very humorous in the different plots of his dr ifting off. In the start of the story the plot, symbols,Read MoreShort Stories1125 Words   |  5 PagesThe themes of short stories are often relevant to real life? To what extent do you agree with this view? In the short stories â€Å"Miss Brill† and â€Å"Frau Brechenmacher attends a wedding† written by Katherine Mansfield, the themes which are relevant to real life in Miss Brill are isolation and appearance versus reality. Likewise Frau Brechenmacher suffers through isolation throughout the story and also male dominance is one of the major themes that are highlighted in the story. These themes areRead MoreShort Story and People1473 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Title: Story Of An Hour Author: Kate Chopin I. On The Elements / Literary Concepts The short story Story Of An Hour is all about the series of emotions that the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard showed to the readers. With the kind of plot of this short story, it actually refers to the moments that Mrs. Mallard knew that all this time, her husband was alive. For the symbol, I like the title of this short story because it actually symbolizes the time where Mrs. Mallard died with joy. And with thatRead MoreShort Story Essay1294 Words   |  6 PagesA short story concentrates on creating a single dynamic effect and is limited in character and situation. It is a language of maximum yet economical effect. Every word must do a job, sometimes several jobs. Short stories are filled with numerous language and sound devices. These language and sound devices create a stronger image of the scenario or the characters within the text, which contribute to the overall pre-designed effect.As it is shown in the metaphor lipstick bleeding gently in CinnamonRead MoreRacism in the Short Stor ies1837 Words   |  7 PagesOften we read stories that tell stories of mixing the grouping may not always be what is legal or what people consider moral at the time. The things that you can learn from someone who is not like you is amazing if people took the time to consider this before judging someone the world as we know it would be a completely different place. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Hospitality Management Customer service

Question: Discuss reasons for using customer Purpose of evaluating a customer service policy service policies . Discuss the purpose of evaluating a customer service policy, indicating how this can assist future staff training and development . Evaluate different communication methods and how these are effectively used . Analyze how customer perception is influenced by customer service provision. Assess sources of information on customer requirements and satisfaction levels. Carry out research on customer requirements and satisfaction levels for a selected business, suggesting potential improvements. Deliver customer service in a business and service environment. Review own performance in the delivery of customer service and make recommendations for improvement. Answer: Introduction In present competitive environment high quality of service is expected for effective customer relationship management. The service organization today is transforming their emphasis from traditional interchange of business activities to activities of rational exchange (Feuss, 1995). Therefore it is very crucial for service organizations to maintain a satisfying relationship with their clients. Service quality in hotel industry is very much dependent on the exchange of processes that happens between the service provider and their customers (Buttle, 1996). In hospitality industry, it is crucial to evaluate any service gap and focus on ensuring quality services to enhance customer satisfaction; it also important to meet customer expectation and perception regarding service delivery (Feuss, 1995). In this competitive environment, number of budgeted hotels is opening in UK market, one such renowned hotel chain is Travelodge. According to recent customer survey, the company is failing to meet customer satisfaction level and score as low as 50 and regarded within 5 most worst performing hotels in terms of customer satisfaction (Coldwell, 2013). However, with proper customer analysis, company can regain its market position. This is a customer analysis report prepared on London Hackney Hotel, one of the properties of Travelodge in north London (, 2016). This report aims to evaluate three elements, importance of customer service policy and its role; second task focus on customer communication process, different methods and ways to convince customers and third is to evaluate customer expectations from the hotel and satisfaction level from the service through secondary and primary research. This paper will help managers of London Hackney Hotel in understanding gap between customer expectations of service and their service delivery, so that proper strategic actions can be taken to gain customer loyalty, satisfaction on the brand. Customer service policies Customer service can be defined as an overall process of all the activities carried by organization to satisfy customer expectation and satisfaction level. It includes services provided before service is delivered, during service encounter process and also after service is given to customer. Key element of customer service includes service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty(Bowie Buttle, 2004). A strong and effective customer service can help in gaining competitive advantage. Customer service policy is a standard document prepared for establishing a standard for execution of customer service in fairly standard situation(Feuss, 1995). Use of customer service policy help in clarifying minimum standard of services for employees; it helps in understanding commitment, basic services, prohibition and communication within hotel property (Timm, 2008). Properly framed service policies are helpful for both customers as well as employees in understanding regulations and work accordingly. Gaining competitive advantage in the market: In this competitive market, competitors generally match the product/service offering at same price; strong customer service policy will help in beating market competition by excelling employees in service delivery system (Kassim, 2010). Stable working environment: in service industry continuous customer interaction take place, therefore employees must be clear about customer satisfaction level, it will help in ensuring team work, better employee and customer relationship and fast service delivery (Cronin, 2000). Increase cost efficiency: Properly made and implemented customer service policy help in increasing customer retention, which help in boosting organizational profit. Enhance brand value: increasing customer satisfaction and service helps in improving positive image of the hotel, it will also help in increasing positive word of mouth publicity. In terms of London Hackney Hotel, there is no specific document present as customer service policy, there is integrity statement which represents information on honesty and ethical presentation of all transaction; there are two other core policies which include privacy policy and terms and condition. These two documents include information regarding booking, cancellation, data security, payments, rights, disputes etc. However, there is need for more concrete policies on customer service that include hotel commitment towards its customers, training to employees, dealing with people with disabilities and feedback process; all these elements are completely missing from hotel policy document, which must be included for improvement. Purpose of evaluating a customer service policy It is very crucial to evaluate customer service policy in order to understand present rules that are being followed by employees to gain customer satisfaction, whether set policies are covering all required aspects or not; it will help in analyzing the service gap and modify policies to make them more attractive and customer centric (Brotherton, 2008). Customer service policies have several elements, while evaluation it is crucial to analyze whether structure of the policy is proper or not, it must be present in easy and understandable language, it must be accessible to all; it must include information on customer requirements, their expectations, service information, confidentiality of data and communication process (Oh Pizam, 2008). Training and development at Travelodge hotels Training is the process of providing and developing information and skills required by employees to operate within the organizational system. It helps in motivating employees and increasing overall productivity. It helps in developing staff skills, behavior; enhance team work and becoming competitive in the market (Noe, 2013). It will also help in developing professional and personal characteristics of staff. Customer service policy can be used as an effective document for staff training in the organization; it can help in delivering informations, which are as follow; Basic service standard; this document help employees in understanding minimum service standard set by management, it include commitment, trust worthiness, the way booking, cancellation and disputes to be managed, services for people with disabilities; basic methodology to deal with situation and customer interaction. Service quality: this document can be used to set customer expectations from service delivery, it helps in clarifying standardized processes within hotel, it also help in understanding code of conduct, privacy policies and terms and conditions for various service delivery; it also help in understanding staff competency requirement, flexibility and responsiveness to deal during service delivery (Robledo, 2001). Evaluation process: this document also include information on feedback process, which help in understanding the way responses can be collected and used for enhancing customer experience within hotel. As the above analysis on Travelodge hotel showed need for preparing a concrete customer service policy, it also helped in analyzing missing areas which must be included in the policy. Therefore, while proving training to future employees, management need to focus on factors like commitment, staff behavior, feedback process, need for people with disabilities; as this information will help employees in dealing with customers in better way. It will help employees in improving their service quality, understanding hospitality industry better and also get genuine feedback for industry improvement. Need for promoting a customer-focused culture It is crucial to develop a customer-focused culture as it help in understanding customer demand and fulfill their needs in best way. Organization culture have indirect impact on guest experience, as it helps in framing the social environment in which employees operate and interact with customers (Laroche, 2009). It is crucial to develop culture that focus on customer needs and enhance coordination among employees. Further, the key to customer-focused culture is to develop employee skills, encourage ownership, risk, feedback and implement advance technological functions. Three core elements that impact customer delight include employees, customer expectations and organizational environment (McLean-Conner, 2006). Communication method analysis Communication is the key strategy to know the customer better and offer them personalized treatment which helps in exceeding their satisfaction level. Employee interaction methodology also impact the way service is being perceived by customers. It is crucial to evaluate different communication methodologies, their advantages, disadvantages, impact on customer satisfaction and prepare a concrete guide for communication that can be easily used by employees for effective communication with customers. Different types of communication methods that can be used in hotels are discussed below; Verbal Verbal communication is regarding as oral conversation among people, it can be one to one interaction such as communication with customers, it can be with groups, and it can be over telephone also. In this methodology words are spoken to pass the intended message. Verbal message is very common in hospitality industry, when employees are in continuous interaction with customers (Robbins, et al., 2014). There are several element which must be considered during verbal communication, it include tone of voice must be low, staff need to interact in low and soft voice with customer and it induce positivity in communication process; other element include speed of communication and inflection; one should not use any sarcasm or defensive language during customer conversations. During group communication, voice needs to be louder but tone needs to be soft. This type of communication strategy is best suited in case of detail explanation requirement, for convincing someone, to understand problem, to complimenting someone. Written Business communication are generally accepted in written forms as they help in presenting clarity as well as used for future reference. Written communication within organization include memos, business proposals, letters, training manuals, office orders, emails, policies, rules and notices. Written communication can be hand written or printed; now days customers are also opting for written communication for bookings in hotels (Chaturvedi, 2004). Customer interaction written communication must be written in polite, formal manner, it must convey positive message to customer. As during written conversation customers cannot see any expression, it is very crucial that they interpret right meaning of written message. Now a days increasing use of internet led an increasing use of written interaction between customer and hotel staff. This interaction impact hotel image and also create customer perception regarding hotel. This method helps in keeping reference for future. Non-verbal Non-verbal communication can be defined as intentional or unintentional behavior of normative actions or expectations. The role of non-verbal communication methodology is inevitable during communication process, different factors such as gestures, postures, eye contact plays significant role in sending and receiving messages, which can be unsaid also. Staff expressions such as smile, physical appearance, dress code, hygiene, body movements, body orientation, eye contact, nodding, hand shaking, and smiling; proxemics and paralanguage have significant impact on service encounter. Transmission of emotions through nonverbal cues also impact customer perception regarding hotel (Kueh Bagul, 2013 ). While communicating with customers, it is crucial to ensure that employees words are matched with proper expression, because deviation between the two impact customer perception negatively. Impact of customer service on customer perception In general customer service provisions have strong impact on customer perception. If a customer is satisfied with customer services then it help in gaining customer loyalty, a company always want to increase repeat purchase and create a strong pool of loyal customers; it also help in increasing organizational profit and brand image (Mooij, 2010). Customer service provision impact the way customers see a brand, it shapes their image of hotel and further their choice also. Perception regarding Travelodge is not very positive in the market, it is being ranked three stars by customers in terms of value for money, and customer is dissatisfied from the breakfast offered. In the year 2014, company also invested for bedroom refurbishment of its hotel which helped in increasing customer satisfaction. Though Travelodge is a budget hotel but there are issues in their customer service provisions, they are failing to satisfy customers, there are minimum service standards being expected as budgeted hotels also these days. For example, customers have complaints regarding no shampoos in bathrooms of hotel, these are basic demands which impact customer perception adversely and create negative image (Davis, 2007). Therefore, there is need for improving customer service provisions for Travelodge to get its market image back. Investigate customer requirements and expectations Secondary research This chapter aims to understand customer requirements and expectations from the hotel; difference between customer expectation and actual service delivery leads to customer dissatisfaction. There are different type of sources that can be used by companies to assess customer requirements and expectations from the organization. Customer expectations are dynamic and they flow continuously at each service level. Understanding customer expectations and adding service performance accordingly helps in getting higher customer satisfaction. Customer survey This is the most widely used and successful method of understanding customer expectations as well as satisfaction from service delivery. Customer expectations are continuous evolving, therefore asking directly from customers help in knowing their expectations from service directly. Different tools for doing this include questionnaire survey, telephone or email surveys (Bernard, 2000). However, associating an incentive to survey help in collecting more feedback, for instance participate in the survey and get 5 percent off on next visit at Travelodge. Analyzing the loophole Another method for understanding customer expectation is to know failure areas, is the service delivery level is less than what is being offered. This can also be done by analyzing service delivery blueprint of hotel; it helps in identifying service delivery failure areas. This tool help in evaluating service from all 7 ps perspectives such as core service, employees, infrastructure, pricing, promotion, any area which is failing to meet customer expectation can be improved. Competitive analysis Another tool that can be used for understanding customer expectation is to evaluate competitors position vis--vis own company position; it will help in understanding why customers prefer competitors over them, what is being offered by their competitors, it will help in understanding the service delivery gap and make strategy accordingly. Sources for information Apart from this, different stakeholders can also be observed and interviewed for understanding customer expectations from the hotel; some of them are as follow; Customer: customer is the most appropriate person to understand their expectations from particular hotel, brand, it will help in analyzing what they want from the hotel and how their satisfaction levels can be enhanced Employees: Front office employees are mostly involved in direct communication with customers; they can contribute in understanding customer expectations through observations Customer records: different records such as complaints, grievances, customer comments at different websites, and reviews on the property helps in understanding service level expectations and loopholes Findings of secondary research After collecting data from various sources following information have been collected regarding customer requirements and satisfaction level at Travelodge London Hackney Hotel: In budgeted hotel, customer does not expect a very luxurious treatment but there are few basic service level expectations which include cleanliness, value, location, sleep quality, rooms and services. Apart from this, SERVQUAL is an appropriate tool for evaluating customer expectations on the basis of tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy (Gale, 1994). Analysis showed that customers are no more merely looking for low price element in budgeted hotels, rather they want to feel valued and an experience to remember; for example money back guarantee by primer inn in UK is a classic example of increasing customer expectation levels. However, there is a customer segment called new budget converts, are the one who were using luxurious hotels but later on moved to budgeted hotels due to economic crisis but there expectations level from budgeted hotels are also very high Customers do not want to pay for services they do not use such as a theatre desk, an extensive room service menu and a spa, therefore such price modification as per service usage are expected by customers. Primary research Different sources that can use for collecting primary data on customer satisfaction include questionnaire, interview, case study analysis, observations etc. (Kothari, 2009). Here primary research has been conducted on visitors and guest of Travelodge, who has visited any of Travelodge hotels in the past and share their experience accordingly. Process A small survey on ten randomly selected visitors was targeted through social media site, Facebook. A pre-defined questionnaire was sent to all guest and responses were collected and evaluated. Questionnaire Name Gender Strongly Agree (SA) Agree (A) Neutral (N) Disagree (D) Strongly Disagree (SD) 5 4 3 2 1 Expectation Statements 5 4 3 2 1 1. The food served must be fresh, hygienically prepared and tasty. 2. Rooms must be clean 3. Personal basic facilities like music, basic hygiene material such as soap, shampoo must be available for the guest 4. Safety and security issues of the guest must be taken into consideration 5. The staffs must be enthusiastic to solve customer queries and handle unexpected situations 6. Follow up services such as tracking the customer experience after service encounters are taken into consideration. 7. Customer must get value of their money Satisfaction Please tick statement while you think London Hackney Hotel is providing and meeting service expectations Statements 5 4 3 2 1 1. The food served by the London Hackney Hotel is hygienic, fresh and as per customer specification 2. Rooms are clean 3. Personal basic facilities like music, basic hygiene material such as soap, shampoo are well available for the guest 4. The personal information of the customers are considered confidential and is not misused by the London Hackney Hotel 5. The staffs of the London Hackney Hotel are enthusiastic to solve customer queries and handle unexpected situations 6. Follow up services such as tracking the customer experience after service encounters are taken into well consideration by the hotel 7. Customers get true value for their money Customer requirements Below is graphical representation of customer expectation from hotel services: Primary research helps in understanding that customers have high expectations in terms of value for money, as they are choosing a budgeted hotel for their stay because price holds significance in their choice. Further, second high expectation is in terms of facilities inside rooms, they seek access to basic facilities as they do not consider budgeted hotels to be cheap rather they must fulfill customer basic requirement. Third element is importance room, must be clean and of standard size and facilities. Fourth key expectation is from staff of the hotel, customer look for cooperative, enthusiastic staff that can help them in solving their problems. Fifth expectation is from food, followed by security and feedback. Satisfaction level Below is graphical representation of customer satisfaction from Travelodge hotel services: Further, if present satisfaction level from London Hackney Hotel is analyzed then customers are highly dissatisfied from accommodation which score an average score of 2.5; value for money is also not worth, customers believe that hotel fails to provide them adequate services for money they pay, they are also dissatisfied with quality of food. Element facilities scores only 1 as all customers are dissatisfied with facilities provided within rooms, staff and feedback is also not up to the mark. Analysis shows that London Hackney Hotel, a property of Travelodge fails to meet customer expectation of service level in all criteria. It is a serious matter that require strategic changes in service management of Travelodge hotels otherwise it might impact the company adversely in both financial and non-financial terms. Recommendation for service improvements There is need for revamping overall service strategy of Travelodge hotels, few of them is as follow; Preparing a concrete customer service policy to state clear standards of service delivery for customers (Coye, 2004). Providing adequate facilities, as budgeted hotels no more mean cheap hotels, rather customer expect standard services (Johns, 1993). Proper training must be provided to staff on customer management and interaction. Proper feedback system must be implemented to get customer reviews and grievance handling produce to resolve complaints in earliest possible time. Both internal and external feedback system must be implemented to review both operational and customer service performance (Rao, et al., 2008). Conclusion Above analysis helped in understanding importance of internal mechanisms, policies and communication on customer perception and expectation regarding hotel. Service industry is very fast, one poor service encounter spread hundred negative word of mouth comments and impact company image adversely. In this era of technological advancement, in no time customer can impact company image adversely through internet. It is crucial to keep all policies and standards at place, Travelodge needs to prepare a concrete customer service policy document that help employees in understanding their service standards and deliver work accordingly. Properly maintained policies help in training employees. Further, communication is the key element in service industry, therefore proper consideration must be ensured during verbal, written communication, nonverbal cues and expression should be considered properly. Major findings show low level of customer satisfaction regarding Travelodge, there is need for ma king strategies to improve customer experience and fulfill their expectation. Bibliography Bernard, R., 2000. 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